Tag Archives: Stretching labia minora*

The Practice of Puxa-Puxa among Mozambican Women: A Systematic Inventory of Motives.

J Sex Res. 2013 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print] LME

The Practice of Puxa-Puxa among Mozambican Women: A Systematic Inventory of Motives.

Vera Cruz G, Mullet E.

Department of Psychology, Eduardo Mondlane University.

ABSTRACT

Puxa-puxa is the elongation of the labia minora of the genital organs. It is one of the most widespread genital practices among women in Mozambique, and the practice seems to be specific to this country. The motives underlying this practice and its abandonment were examined in a theory-driven way. A total of 616 women currently living in the provinces of Maputo, Zambezia, and Nampula, aged 18 to 62, were presented with one of two questionnaires that contained items about possible motives for practicing puxa-puxa or possible motives for not practicing it. Seven separable motives for practicing puxa-puxa were found, and the most highly rated were “Having a satisfying sexual life”; “Satisfying my sexual partner”; and “Gaining self-control.” Five separable motives for not practicing puxa-puxa were found, and the most highly rated were “Disliking a painful practice”; “Affirming one’s value as a person”; and “Avoiding contamination.” The main findings of the study are that the practice of puxa-puxa is associated with deep psychological motives common to most women in most cultures, namely having a satisfying sexual life with a reliable partner, creating the conditions for having children, and being able to care for them. The abandonment of this practice is largely the result of personal decisions, which are not taken under constraint and which are not exclusively taken from fear of illness.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

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Labia Minora Elongation and its implications on the health of women: A Systematic Review

Int J Sex Health. 2013. DOI:10.1080/19317611.2013.851139LME

Labia Minora Elongation and its implications on the health of women: A Systematic Review

Martínez Pérez G, Tomás Aznar C, Bagnol B

ABSTRACT

Labia Minora Elongation is a female genital modification practice categorized among the types included in the fourth group of female genital mutilation. In this paper we display the results of a systematic review of the evidence-based knowledge published on the health risks and benefits of Labia Minora Elongation as informed by African female respondents who are insiders of the practice. No other systematic review on this specific topic has been published before. A methodological bibliographic search was done in scientific databases, by manual referencing and by contacting experts on this area of knowledge. Seventeen papers turned out eligible for this review, which correspond to nine different studies. Eight of these studies were conducted in Eastern and Southern African countries and one was carried out in Italy. This review concludes that pain at the beginning of the practice, nuisances related to the use of caustic herbs, and stigmatization in failing to comply with the practice are the principal health risks associated to labia minora elongation. At the same time, there is evidence that labial elongation may benefit the sexual health and well being of women. More research of a quantitative nature is necessary to determine its prevalence across the practicing cultures and to precise its implications on the sexual and reproductive health for the women who engage in this female genital modification.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

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Labia minora elongation as understood by Baganda male and female adolescents in Uganda.

Cult Health Sex. 2013 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print]LME

Labia minora elongation as understood by Baganda male and female adolescents in Uganda.

Martínez Pérez G, Namulondo H, Tomás Aznar C.

Department of Physiatrist and Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Zaragoza , Zaragoza , Spain.

ABSTRACT

Labia minora elongation is a common traditional female genital modification practice among the members of the Baganda ethnic group in Uganda. In 2002, a study carried out by the Padua Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation analysed how Baganda girls residing in Wakiso District graphically represented their experiences of labia minora elongation. In the present study, using the same methodology and in the same geographic setting 10 years later, we asked young men and women to prepare graphical representations of this rite. The purpose was to learn about how the practice is perceived and represented, describing the differences found in their testimonies, and comparing the findings with the former study. A total of 36 respondents (21 male and 15 female), aged between 9 and 15 years old participated in the study. The drawings were analysed using a three-themes analysis frame with a focus on setting, subject and operator. Differences were detected between how young women and men represented this practice. Educational interventions may be helpful to address the doubts, concerns, anxieties and misconceptions that Baganda youth may have concerning traditional genital practices.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

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Elongation of labia minora – Zambia

manena20.blogspot.com webpage. Sunday, December 07, 2008LME

Elongation of labia minora – Zambia

By Manena (author of the blog where this post is hosted)

EXTRACT

I was browsing the web today and just now found out that elongation of labia minora is classified as Genital Mutilation type IV (where have I been?). So of course after my initial shock of “oh my God! I am mutilated!!!” abated… I had a few minutes to think and I have come to a conclusion on the subject. The researchers have erred.
History and Commentary:
Let me start by saying that the information contained herein will most likely upset/disconcert a lot of Zambians because we have trouble talking about our sexuality or sex in public places. Ritual/ traditional sexual matters are discussed in private among friends or at gender restricted traditional ceremonies.
The reason I feel strongly to speak on this subject is that as Zambian, we sometimes have a tendency to accept western standards as the norm, shunning our own cultures without much investigation other than the fact that it seems primitive. We often forget that when anthropologists come in from other countries to “study” us, they are not highly familiar with the language for a start, and the local people are not comfortable explaining everything or have trouble translating things to English. The evidence is clear in ChisunguA girl’s initiation ceremony among the Bemba of Zambiaby Audrey Richards.
Yes there are a lot of inconsistencies and traditional teaching that has been done the same way for ages that we have no idea why it’s done that way other than– it was passed on by our forefathers that way. You could say the same for many religious practices too. Unfortunately, unlike religion, our history is not written, but passes on through fables or partially true stories, through dance and song or a village elders romantic view of the past…

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ELONGATION: OKUKYALIRA ENSIKO, the Buganda way of enhancing sexual pleasure

Ekimeeza webpage. MAY 21, 2012 LME

ELONGATION: OKUKYALIRA ENSIKO, the Buganda way of enhancing sexual pleasure

(No author)

EXTRACT

Humanity’s pursuit for merit is not restricted to the open. Even in utmost privacy, when the matter at hand is entirely the business of a secretive twosome, mankind has always sought to excel and impress.

To many men, performance must impress even if it means applying drugs as dangerous as Viagra, Levitra and Cialis. Many others have tried hazardous penis enlargement products. It is women, however, that have come up with the most creative and most awesome ways of enhancing their sexual performance.

In some cultures, glitters and jewels are applied down there to boost the area’s attractiveness. In parts of East and Central Africa women invented a sexual stimulus method that the people of Buganda came to know as Okukyalira ensiko.

This tradition of pulling and elongating the parts of the vagina variously known as labia minora, inner labia or inner lips enjoys pervasive reverence in central Uganda. In western Uganda, women of the Bahima clan used to make their labia minora long enough to cover the vaginal opening, raising barricades in the path of rapists. As members of the clan moved to towns and increasingly started wearing clothes following the 1986 change of government, the fear of rape went away with the modification of the vagina…

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Violated: Women’s Human Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa

Human Rights & Human Welfare Journal. Topical review Digest: Human Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa digest.
LMEFREE

Violated: Women’s Human Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa

By Kathryn Birdwell Wester

EXTRACT: In contemporary sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), women are facing human rights abuses unparalleled elsewhere in the world. Despite the region’s diversity, its female inhabitants largely share experiences of sexual discrimination and abuse, intimate violence, political marginalization, and economic deprivation. Consider the following…

This report can be accessed for free in this LINK

 

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The right to culture and the culture of rights: a critical perspective on women’s sexual rights in Africa

Feminist Legal Studies. Apr 2008 16(1):47 LMEFREE

The right to culture and the culture of rights: a critical perspective on women’s sexual rights in Africa

Tamale S

NO ABSTRACT AVAILABLE FOR THIS PAPER

This paper can be accessed in this LINK

 

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Women’s Sexuality as a Site of Control & Resistance: Views on the African Context

Keynote Address delivered at the International Conference on Bride price under the theme, “Coalition and Action to Safeguard Women and Children in the Family, “under the auspices of the Mifumi Project, February 17, 2004 at Makerere University, KampalaFREELME

Women’s Sexuality as a Site of Control & Resistance: Views on the African Context 

Tamale S

Faculty of Law – Makerere University

EXTRACT

…Tutelage begun at puberty just before a girl starts menstruating, when she would “visit the bush” under the tutelage of her Ssenga.,24 Visiting the bush involves a procedure of stretching or elongating the labia minor of a woman. Traditionally, among the Baganda, the meaning attached to this cultural practice was a tightly kept secret that was associated with female enhanced arousal in foreplay. The purported and commonly touted meaning of the elongated labia was that they enhanced erotic pleasure of a man who came in sexual contact with them. Of course this practice was viewed through a completely different light by the imperialists who came across it. They perceived it as a barbaric mutilation of the female genitals and, today it has been condemned and classified as “Type IV FGM”!…

This conference paper can be accessed in this LINK

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“A CASE OF CULTURE GONE AWRY”

Masters in Women’s Law Programme, Southern and Eastern Africa Regional Women’s Law Centre, Faculty of Law, University of Zimbabwe. (2008)LMEFREE

“A case of culture gone awry”: An investigation of female initiation ceremonies and Nyau dance vigils on the rights of teenage girls to education and sexual reproductive health amongst migrant communities in Norton, Zimbabwe

Thabethe SN

ABSTRACT

This dissertation focuses on the harm suffered by teenage girls who, often forced into early marriages by poverty, must first engage in the customary practices of initiation ceremonies followed by participation in highly ritualized dance vigils. Evidence from a wide range of sources analysed in the context of various methodologies, in particular the Women’s Law Approach, testifies loudly to the serious harm caused, primarily, to their health and education as a result of the growing abuses of these practices. In order to protect and realize the human rights of these vulnerable young women in terms of local and international HR instruments which bind Zimbabwe, the writer does not suggest abolishing the practices, but rather reforming them internally by educating their adult overseers.

This Master Thesis Dissertation can be accessed in this LINK

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Preparing for microbicide trials in Rwanda: Focus group discussions with Rwandan women and men

Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2006 8(5): 395-406 LME

Preparing for microbicide trials in Rwanda: Focus group discussions with Rwandan women and men 

N. Veldhuijzen, J. Nyinawabega, M. Umulisa, B. Kankindi, E. Geubbels, P. Basinga, J. Vyankandondera & J. Van De Wijgert

ABSTRACT

The acceptability and feasibility of microbicide studies and future microbicide use are influenced by existing norms and values regarding sexual and contraceptive behaviour. In preparation for microbicide research in Rwanda, focus group discussions were conducted to assess sexual and contraceptive behaviour, preferences for vaginal lubrication, and hypothetical acceptability of microbicides among Rwandan women and men. Seven focus group discussions were conducted among sexually active married women, unmarried women, sex workers, female students, older women and men living in Kigali, Rwanda, and an additional group of women living in a rural area. The results indicate that condom use is low among Rwandan men and women and that condoms are mainly used by men during commercial sex. Women have limited power to negotiate condom or family planning use. Vaginal hygiene practices are very common and consist primarily of washing with water. Lubrication during sex is highly preferred by both men and women. Hypothetical microbicide acceptability after an explanation of what microbicides are and a demonstration with lubricant jelly was high.

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Psycholinguistic approaches to ritual labia minora elongation among the Baganda women of Uganda

Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision. 2006, pp 57-64LME

Psycholinguistic approaches to ritual labia minora elongation among the Baganda women of Uganda 

Villa E., Grassivaro Gallo P

ABSTRACT

Ritual elongation of the labia minora is a particular expansive modification of the external genitalia exercised for cultural motives (FGM type 4 – WHO 1996). The practice is common among the Baganda women of Uganda, where a variety of terms describe the rite.

Psycholinguistic analysis was conducted both in present day Africa, where elongation of the labia minora results from ritual manipulation, and through the bibliographical accounts of western authors (anthropologists and doctors) from the 1950s/60s.

A semantic polarization results in the linguistic expressions. In Africa, the positive connotation of terms used to describe the rite indicates its substantial valorisation. The vocabulary used by western authors, however, includes reference to aspects of rural Europe suggestive of poverty and ignorance (“apron”), or symbolic ridicule of the manipulated feature, equating it to the ear of a Coker Spaniel (Spaniel ear nymphae).

This book chapter can be purchased in this LINK

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Labial Elongation in the Shona

The Central Africa Journal of Medicine. July 1969 15 (7):165-166FREELME

Labial Elongation in the Shona

Williams J

EXTRACT

It is a common medical observation that most Shona women have elongated labia minora. Upon external vaginal examination these usually pre~ent as two contiguous bundles of gathered, shrIvelled, loose skin tissue. By including a labial measurement with routine antenatal pro- cedures, the extent of this enlargement was estimated in a series of rural Shona patients…

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Vaginal practices: eroticism and implications for women’s health and condom use in Mozambique.

Cult Health Sex. 2008 Aug;10(6):573-85. doi: 10.1080/13691050801999071.LME

Vaginal practices: eroticism and implications for women’s health and condom use in Mozambique.

Bagnol B, Mariano E.

Department of Anthropology, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. bagnolbrigitte@icon.co.za

ABSTRACT

This paper analyses two female sexual practices in Tete Province, Mozambique: (1) the practice of elongating the labia minora and (2) what is sometimes called ‘dry sex’ involving the insertion of natural and/or synthetic products into the vagina or the ingestion of these products orally. These practices are fundamental to the construction of female identity, eroticism and the experience of pleasure. Notions such as ‘closed/open’, ‘dry/damp’, ‘hot/cold’, ‘heavy/light’, ‘life/death’, ‘wealth/poverty’ and ‘sweet/not sweet’ are central to local understandings of sexual practices and reproduction. These notions may affect the women’s sexual health because they influence preferences for sex without a condom. These practices may also be associated with the alteration of the vaginal flora and vaginal lesions that may make women more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

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African Sexuality: A reader

Pambazuka Press has published the book “African Sexualities: A Reader”, a collection of research and opinion papers edited by the Ugandese writer Sylvia Tamale.

In this book the following works can be found:

1. Introduction, by Sylvia Tamale

2. Researching and Theorizing Sexualities in Africa, by Sylvia Tamale

3. Doing Research on Sexuality in Africa: Ethical Dilemmas and the Positioning of the Researcher, by Emídio Gune and Sandra Manuel

4. From Minuscule Biomedical Models to Sexuality’s Depths, by Stella Nyanzi

5. Tracks: Researching Sexualities Walking AbOUT the city of Johannesburg, by Zethu Matebeni

6. Dialoguing Culture and Sex: Reflections from the Field, by Amy S Tsanga

7. Subversion & Resistance: Activist Initiatives, by Jane Bennett

8. The ‘Perils’ of Sex and the Panics of Race: The Dangers of Inter-Racial Sex in Colonial Southern Rhodesia, by Oliver Phillips

9. Nudity and Morality: Legislating Women’s Bodies and Dress in Nigeria, by Bibi Bakare-Yusuf

10. “Getting the Nation Talking about Sex”: Reflections on the Politics of Sexuality and ‘Nation-Building’ in Post-Apartheid South Africa, by Deborah Posel

11. Paradoxes of sex work and sexuality in modern- day Uganda, by  Sylvia Tamale

12. Life Story: Love, Power and Resilience, by Daughtie Akoth

13. African LGBTI Declaration, by 14. Poem: Two Kinds of Blue, by Connie Mutua

15. Life Story & Poem: A Night in Zanzibar, by Jessica Horn

16. Poem: False Memory, by Jumoke Verissimo

17. Dear Diary, by Lindiwe Nkutha

18. Poem: Explain, by Hakima Abbas

19. Poem: My Love (for Eudy Simelane), by Musa Okwonga

20. Representing African Sexualities
m by Desiree Lewis

21. Pious Stardom: Cinema and the Islamic Revival in Egypt, by Karim Mahmoud Tartoussieh

22. Intersex: The Forgotten Constituency, by Julius Kaggwa

23. The Chronicle of an Intersexed Activist’s Journey , by Sally Gross

24. Gender Dynamics: A Transsexual Overview, by Audrey Mbugua

25. Barrenness and Sexuality in the Ndau Community, by Rebecca Magorokosho

26. “Osunality” (Or African Eroticism), by Nkiru Nzegwu

27. Politics of naming sexual practices, by Brigitte Bagnol & Esmeralda Mariano LME

28. Fiction: My American Jon, by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

29. Life Story: Questions, Questions, by Lucy Nambajjwe

30. Fiction: Penitence—Hurry Hurry No Speed, by Derrick Zgambo

31. Fiction: Love Beads, by Yaba Badoe

32. Poem: Cinnamon, by Gabeba Baderoon

33. Poem: Covert Sexuality, by Coumba Toure

34. Poem: The Dream in the Next Body, by Gabeba Baderoon

35. Poem: Nature’s Dance, by Olivia Coatzee

36. Poem: Untitled, by Juliane Okot Bitek

37. Reproductive Health and Sexual Rights, by Beth Maina-Ahlberg and Asli Kulane

38. Family Planning, Contraception and Abortion in Islam, by Sa’diyya Shaikh

39. Guilty Until Proven Innocent: Politics versus the Press in Defense of Reproductive Rights in Zambia, by Wilma Nchito

40. Abortion: a Desperate Measure for Lack of Choice, by Salma Maoulidi

41. Poem: The Shedding of Blood, by Unoma Azuah

42. Ode to my Uterus, by Everjoice J. Win

43. Life Stories: Ob/Gyn Experiences, by Sylvia Tamale

44. Journal Excerpts: Reflections on my Journey with my Womb, by Akabotho Kaluwa

45. Masculinities and Male Sexualities, by Kopano Ratele

46. Multiple Meanings of Manhood Among Boys in Ghana, by Akosua Adomako Ampofo and John Boaten

47. “Mombasa Morans”: Embodiment, Sexual Morality and Samburu Men in Kenya, by George Paul Meiu

48. Sexual Orientation and Human Rights: Putting Homophobia on Trial, by Makau Mutua

49. ‘I am Not Tassa, He is Not a Man Like Other Men’: Feminizing Infertility and Masculinizing Fertility in South Nyanza, 1945-60, by Agnes Odinga

50. Poem: The Phantoms of My Opera, by Lombe Annie Mwambwa

51. Poem: The Kiss, by Frank Chipasula

52. Life Story: The Diamond in The G…., by Kipkemboi [jeffrey moses]

53. Unpacking the [Govern]Mentality of African Sexualities, by Stella Nyanzi

54. Sexuality, Gender and Disability in South Africa, by Washeila Sait, Theresa Lorenzo, Melissa Steyn and Mikki van Zyl

55. The Realities of ‘Choice’ in Africa: Implications for Sexuality, Vulnerability, and HIV/AIDS, by Chi-Chi Undie

56. Poem: Wet Towel, by Lombe Mwambwa

57. Interview: Challenges of Sexuality and Aging in a Barren Woman, by Edith Okiria

58. Poem: AIDS Sting(ma)

59. Sexuality, Spirituality & the Supernatural, by Chimaraoke Izugbara

60. ‘African sex is dangerous!’ renegotiating ‘ritual sex’ in Contemporary Masaka District, Uganda, by Stella Nyanzi, Justine Nassimbwa, Vincent Kayizzi and Strivan Kabanda

61. Sangomahood, Abstinence and Celibacy Among Tangoma in Swaziland, by Hebron Ndlovu

62. Creative Methodological/Pedagogical Approaches, by Mansah Prah

63. Interrogating the Link between Gendered Sexualities, Power and Legal Mechanisms: Experiences from the Lecture Room, by Sylvia Tamale

64. Through Zanele Muholi’s Eyes: Re/imagining Ways of Seeing Black Lesbians, by Pumla Gqola

65. A Radical Technique to Teach Sexual Rights, by Dorothy Aken’ova

66. Song: Laabaan Song, by Marame Gueye

In this LINK you can purchase the digital edition of this book.

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The social vagina: labia elongation and social capital among women in Rwanda.

Cult Health Sex. 2010 Oct;12(7):813-26.LME

The social vagina: labia elongation and social capital among women in Rwanda.

Larsen J

Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, London, UK. j.kuehnellarsen@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Far from being an individual concern, vaginas are located within complex socio-cultural settings. The acceptability of policies that focus on health-promoting behavioural change is influenced by values regarding normative gender and sexual roles. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minorathrough manual manipulation is not an individual act but takes place in social groups and thus cannot be fully understood by focusing one’s attention solely on the individual-related behavioural components but, rather, on the social environment in which it exists. This paper aims to increase knowledge about labia elongation and assesses whether this vaginal practice produce social capital.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

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Rwandan female genital modification: elongation of the Labia minora and the use of local botanical species.

Cult Health Sex. 2008 Feb;10(2):191-204.LME

Rwandan female genital modification: elongation of the Labia minora and the use of local botanical species.

Koster M, Price LL

Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University, Netherlands. marian.koster@wur.nl

ABSTRACT

The elongation of the labia minora is classified as a Type IV female genital mutilation by the World Health Organization. However, the term mutilation carries with it powerful negative connotations. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minora and the use of botanicals to do so is meant to increase male and female pleasure. Women regard these practices as a positive force in their lives. This paper aims to assess whether Rwandan vaginal practices should indeed be considered a form of female genital mutilation and whether the botanicals used by women are detrimental to their health. Research was carried out in the northeast of Rwanda over the course of 13 months. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirteen informants. Two botanicals applied during stretching sessions were identified as Solanum aculeastrum Dunal and Bidens pilosa L. Both have wide medicinal use and contain demonstrated beneficial bioactive compounds. We suggest that it is therefore more appropriate to describe Rwandan vaginal practices as female genital modification rather than mutilation.

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Elongation of labia minora in Uganda: including Baganda men in a risk reduction education programme.

Cult Health Sex. 2011 Jan;13(1):45-57. LME

Elongation of labia minora in Uganda: including Baganda men in a risk reduction education programme.

Martínez Pérez G, Namulondo H

Dept. Fisiatry and Nursing, Fac. Health Sciences, Univ. Zaragoza (Spain). gmartinezgabas@gmail.com

Okukyalira ensiko or ‘visiting the bush’ is how, in Uganda, the Baganda people name the practice of elongating the labia minora, which young girls start performing before menarche. As a mandatory rite of passage that identifies membership of the tribe, one of its main purposes is to enhance sexual pleasure for both male and female partners. The conditions in which it is practiced involve certain physical health risks. In this qualitative study carried out in Wakiso district, a semi-structured interview was conducted among 31 Baganda men, in order to understand their perceptions, attitudes and knowledge toward the way in which their daughters practise labia minora elongation. According to our results, men highly value this practice for its capacity to enhance sexual stimulation even though they are aware of its risks. Since genital stretching is likely to endure, the authors discuss the possibility of addressing Baganda men by health workers in an education programme aimed at minimising the risks attached to the procedure and, hence, improving the sexual and reproductive health of Baganda girls.

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